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A Data Subject Access Request (DSAR) is the means by which individuals request that your enterprise discloses what personal data it holds on them and how you use or intend to use it. Submitting DSARs is one of the Data Subject Rights granted to consumers under data privacy laws such as the California Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA) and the European General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR). These laws not only give consumers awareness about their rights over their personal data but also provide the tools necessary to exercise them. An enterprise served with a DSAR is legally obligated to fulfill these requests within a limited timeframe to avoid non-compliance. This is why automating the processing of DSARs is necessary to respond within the aforementioned timeframe. So, let’s discuss the importance of DSARs, how they differ under CCPA and GDPR, and how your business can cost-effectively prepare for and automatically respond to DSARs, which are likely to increase substantially in a post-CCPA world.

Who Are the Beneficiaries of DSARs?

DSARs give consumers unprecedented control over their personal information stored by organizations, from access to data and requesting information on stored data to requesting information on the data safeguards the organization provides. With CCPA, consumers can request DSARs twice a year at no cost whatsoever.

For businesses, speedy and accurate fulfillment of DSARs substantially boosts their brand image while also ensuring compliance with CCPA regulations. However, some estimates put the cost of the fulfillment of each DSAR could be in the thousands, since it requires data gathering across a multitude of systems, putting them in one place, going through data records and compiling it all in a comprehensive report. Moreover, fulfilling each DSAR can take weeks. This is where a solution based on automation can be a potent weapon.


Example of a Data Subject Access Request


DSARs under CCPA vs. GDPR

While both CCPA and GDPR provide consumers with mechanisms to exercise greater control over their data, there are some fundamental differences between how much power a consumer has under each law. Let’s have a look:



How to Prepare for DSARs

Many expect that the number of DSARs received will increase significantly once CCPA goes into effect on Jan 1, 2020. So let’s explore what is required and how to prepare:

Responding to a Data Subject Request

Organizations have 45 days to respond and fulfill a customer’s data subject request, in a transferable electronic format. These obligations may vary depending on the customer’s request and how their information is handled.

Manage Deletion Requests

Deletion requests involve not only team members from within the organization, but also all third-party vendors and partners with whom the personal information has been shared.

Communicating with the Consumer

CCPA requires the disclosure of rights and communication about DSARs, as does the GDPR. The rights given to consumers under CCPA and GDPR are similar but not identical. This means that organizations will need to change their communication accordingly.



Responding to Data Subject Access Requests

The following are the steps required to process and fulfill a DSAR:

  1. Register, log and authenticate DSAR
    Organizations must register data requests, log them in a system of record, and authenticate the user before starting work on their fulfillment, either manually or automatically.
  2. Collect personal information
    For organizations to prepare for DSARs, they will need to discover and categorize the personal data they process and store. This data is often stored on an array of systems within an organization and externally as well. The personal data must also be mapped to the individual owner of that data to facilitate the processing of DSARs. Leveraging a People Data Graph can help streamline this process. The collection of this data must also be done in a safe manner to avoid additional data sprawl which could translate to greater liability.
  3. Review and approve the information
    After gathering the necessary information, organizations need to review the data and make sure it meets the DSAR requirements without disclosing proprietary information or the personal data of any other data subject.
  4. Safely deliver customer information
    The final response must then be delivered to the consumer securely. If a data breach or leakage occurs, it can cost as much as $750 per leaked record.

Here are several risks associated with fulfilling a data subject request you must watch out for:

  • Requesters cannot be trusted without authentication.
  • Managing deadlines is crucial to fulfilling DSARs.
  • Data scanning should be automated, and done in a way that does not replicate copies of the data
  • Data processing should be centralized in a safe workplace to avoid personal data sprawl
  • Consumer responses should be encrypted to avoid data breaches.
  • The activity must be tracked to keep a record for validating compliance
  • Data delivered to the wrong person can be catastrophic.

One important factor to consider is that using traditional means will do more harm than good. For example, using emails to deal with DSARs can be dangerous as the risk of data sprawl increases when sending and receiving data over a system that is not secure. Moving personal information in an unencrypted system increases the risk of data breaches. It takes an average of 196 days for an organization to pick up on a data breach, making it essential for enterprises to fortify and automate their systems to protect themselves from any data breach.

Key Takeaways

Here are some highlights:

  • DSARs are a mechanism by which consumers request access to their personal information held by organizations such as yours.
  • Responding to these requests presents several operational challenges.
  • Fulfilling DSARs will prove to be especially costly (average cost of $1,400 per each request when fulfilled manually)
  • A comprehensive DSR robotic automation solution can reduce cost and complexity and limit legal liability

Large organizations may have hundreds of millions of records about their consumers, often spread across an array of systems. Sorting this data and creating a data inventory to cope with DSARs is a challenging task that requires organizations to automate their current practices.

At, we have solutions that offer robotic automation, machine learning and secure cross-channel collaboration to help your business stay prepared for CCPA.

Next Steps

To learn more about automation and orchestration of data subject requests and how much time you can save, check out the video below or schedule a demo to see it live, in action!


If you’re reading this, you care about data privacy. Maybe you care about it in the scope of your job responsibilities, or perhaps you care about it personally: in the scope of your own personal life and technology use. But more likely than not, it’s a mix of the two.  This is why automation of privacy efforts – and PrivacyOps -- matters. Curious? Read on.

The cultural zeitgeist of data privacy awareness

We didn’t get here by accident. Governments around the world have not enacted data-centric regulations such as GDPR and the California Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA) out of the pure goodness of their hearts. These laws are largely in response to growing public and awareness and outcry over-exploitation of sensitive personal information: personal information that individuals feel they often have little choice in providing or controlling if they are to participate in modern society. Pick your favorite headline about a breach or data privacy violation; data privacy awareness is high and growing.

The research done by 451 Research also corroborates this. In one of our consumer survey cycles, we asked individuals how concerned they were about data privacy. A full 90% reported they were either “very concerned” or “somewhat concerned.” Only 1% reported they were “not at all concerned.”

That type of awareness is hard to ignore, and in the US, individual states are rapidly enacting legislation for data privacy and protection: following in the footsteps of California. But for businesses looking to comply with these regulations, the landscape is treacherous. Not only does California’s law – CCPA – have extraterritorial reach, but all of the individual state proposals for laws are slightly different, leading to balkanization of data privacy and protection standards in the US. Interstate organizations in the US, then, cannot sustainably approach each new regulation with an ad hoc “Whack-a-Mole” approach. They need privacy programs that are adaptable, scalable, and that leverage automation to execute data management tasks common to multiple regulatory frameworks.


Common denominators: identifying the key principles of data privacy

But what, exactly, is the common denominator across these increasingly diverse data protection and privacy mandates? It is often easier to get caught up in the individual nuances and “checkbox” requirements of each than it is to identify core underlying principles. Identifying differences can give the organization a deceivingly simple “to-do” list that misses the big picture. In reality, data privacy and data protection regulations fundamentally exist to protect the rights of individuals, and to protect the rights of individuals, organizations need full control of ALL the personal data in their possession.

Across data privacy and protection regulations, individuals are generally given the “right to know” and the “right to say no” with regard to their data. The right to delete personal data, the right to data portability, the right to reasonable security for personal data, and the right to be notified in the case of a data breach are also all very common. Again, organizations must have a very granular understanding of what personal data is in their possession and what is happening to it at all times if these basic rights are to be fulfilled. Not knowing is not an excuse.


Challenges with data privacy in the modern IT ecosystem

Unfortunately for businesses, data is more difficult to control and understand than ever before. Once personal data is ingested into an organization, it propagates into countless internal systems and data silos, and can make its way to dozens or even hundreds of third-party vendor systems that the original organization has limited control over. A growing number of end users demanding data within organizations also complicates the management of appropriate access and permissions.

And the diversity of the average business IT environment is simply staggering. According to 451 Research’s enterprise practitioner survey results, 72% of organizations that use the public cloud use more than one public cloud vendor, and a total of 8% used more than three public cloud vendors: an impressive feat considering only three public cloud providers dominate the market in the US. For organizations with 1,000+ employees, a full third – 33% -- report having more than 50 distinct departmental data silos. That’s a lot of disparate data sources to manage.

A data storm is brewing

These factors amount to a perfect storm. Growing public outrage and awareness, proliferating regulations, sprawling IT ecosystems, an expanding pool of self-service data consumers, and the intensifying enterprise pressure to extract maximum insight from all available informational resources.

We’re at the end of an era; gone are the days where “reactive” business functions such as compliance and data privacy could be at odds with more “proactive” enterprise insight initiatives such as analytics and data science. In an era of rapid disruption, organizations that want to survive must align their business objectives such that data privacy and protection is no longer a burden or cost center. Rather, it must be an accelerator for better data management architecture and practices which will benefit all stakeholders.


The operationalization of responsible data use

In this context, data privacy and protection efforts are deeply intertwined with the viability of the business and the ability to meet the needs and expectations of customers: particularly in the B2C space. So, it should go without saying that data privacy and data protection needs to be an ongoing, iterative, adaptable process rather than a project-based “checkbox” approach with a deadline. New regulations will always emerge; it is up to organizations to implement processes and technology that can support evolving needs rather than just the specifications of a single law.

Automation will be critical. There is no amount of human talent and effort sufficient to scale to the data management volume challenges within a typical modern organization. There is simply too much data to evaluate and protect. Capabilities such as automated detection of potentially-sensitive data sources, automated policy controls for data, automated control of data access rights, and automated fulfillment of data subject access requests (DSARs) are all possible and – increasingly – necessary.

The PrivacyOps concept and framework looks to operationalize data privacy practices across the organization, leveraging automation, so that not only compliance objectives can be met, but so that the friction of end user data access and leverage can be reduced. Better data management and data privacy controls, when implemented correctly, can actually free up data that was formerly locked away in silos. To the average business end user, such as a data analyst, an effective PrivacyOps program will be invisible and simply make access to appropriate data sources quicker and more seamless.


The PrivacyOps Framework

What does PrivacyOps look like? It is a framework, rather than a specific tool, that takes into account people, processes, and technology. Emphasis on automation of error-prone and high-scale tasks is a must. At its most rudimentary, it breaks down into the convergence of four basic “systems:”

  • System of engagement with those that have privacy rights
    How will the organization communicate securely and effectively, and acknowledge the shifting preferences, of its data subject and customer audience?
  • System of automation for fulfilling privacy requirements
    How will the organization automate the assessment of third-party risk, or delivery of data to those that request it, or appropriate and timely notifications in the case of a breach?
  • System of record, including privacy knowledge and analytics
    How will the organization actually demonstrate that its compliance initiatives have been consistent and robust, or learn from its past data privacy efforts?
  • System of collaboration among privacy stakeholders
    How will the organization enable diverse data-privacy stakeholders to communicate and collaborate effectively without exasperating personal data sprawl?

Success means a shift in perceptions and approach

It’s time to stop thinking of data privacy and data protection as a burden, a barrier, or a niche responsibility within the organization. Responsible use of data, and the data management practices that enable it, can benefit everyone: from those depending on high-quality information to those that depend on the trust of consumers to cultivate long-lasting, profitable relationships.

Yes, organizations will need to leverage automation and technology to achieve these objectives. But ultimately, the discussion needs to start with business stakeholders. Getting everyone in alignment should be the first step, and establishment of effective and adoptable processes should be next. Finally, appropriate technology tools should be considered, selected, and implemented.

The perfect storm is brewing within global enterprises. The convergence of exploding data volumes and increasing data privacy regulatory requirements are creating conditions that require serious attention from businesses. IDC expects that by 2023, 102.6 zettabytes of new data to be created every year. These 102.6 zettabytes will most certainly be scattered with personal information of individuals — personal information that will be protected by the California Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA) when it goes into effect on January 1st, 2020.

Following a wave of heightened public awareness about privacy, CCPA endows data subjects with certain rights to their data and imposes penalties and grants private rights of action in the event of non-compliance. California by itself is one of the world's largest economies, so a state law enacted to protect the residents and visitors to the state will have effects far beyond its borders.

CCPA grants rights to California consumers and places requirements on businesses that make more than 50% of their revenue by selling data or have more than $25 million in annual revenue. These rights and requirements include:

  • The right to receive all data a company has on a consumer
  • The right to be forgotten/deletion of personal data
  • The right to prevent the sale of personal data
  • A private right of action related to personal data lost through a data breach

Traditional manual methods of privacy compliance, driven off spreadsheets or simple web portals are no match to the real-time data control & orchestration needs of modern privacy regulations like CCPA.  Following are the issues companies will see with manual or legacy compliance methods:

To comply with modern regulations like CCPA, we need to rethink privacy.  Privacy needs to be operationalized with automated discovery of each individual’s data across structured and unstructured systems and layers of automation and orchestration on top of it to comply with all aspects of global privacy regulations.  A PrivacyOps framework is required, which enables such individual-level data intelligence and layers of automation in a collaborative environment for various stakeholders.

Key requirements of an effective PrivacyOps framework are the following:

  • The most foundational element of a PrivacyOps framework is the ability to automatically find personal data about an individual and make it easy for data, privacy and compliance teams to interact with that data.
  • An easy to use, secure platform to engage with individual consumers enabling them to exercise data rights and update the consent
  • Automation of critical privacy compliance requirements, such as DSRs, breach notifications, assessments
  • A comprehensive record of all privacy compliance activities
  • A secure collaboration system among privacy stakeholders to avoid personal data sprawl

Adopting a PrivacyOps framework reduces costs associated with compliance, avoids legal penalties and helps avoid brand damage. For example, automating the DSAR process leveraging continuous real-time data intelligence can dramatically reduce the cost per DSAR, as well as improving accuracy and time to complete. Being able to complete DSARs within the required timeframes at scale avoids penalties and potential lawsuits and builds trust equity with customers. Similarly, breach notifications can be more surgical, leveraging accurate data intelligence to identify only those customers that were impacted – avoiding overly broad notifications that could incur more costs and penalties. And harnessing automated orchestration and data insights for vendor assessments eliminates the back and forth of emailing surveys and provides accurate data with less operational effort.

Data privacy regulations create a prime opportunity to revamp your data organization and integrations and create an integrated enterprise. Real-time compliance should be a goal, not just with DSARs, but also across as many regulatory processes as possible.

Next Steps

Organizations collect and store vast amounts of people’s data to provide services and enhance those over time. Consumers, on the other hand, are usually unaware of what data is being collected or used as long as continually improving services are being provided to them. CCPA (California Consumer Privacy Act) aims to give consumers more visibility, transparency, and control over their personal data. So, let's look at the four types of personal data under the CCPA, benefits of CCPA for consumers as well as organizations, the companies that fall under the ambit of CCPA, how they can comply and some key takeaways from this write-up.

What is Personal Information Under CCPA?

According to CCPA, "Information that identifies, relates to, describes, is reasonably capable of being associated with, or could reasonably be linked, directly or indirectly, with a particular consumer or household" is classified as personal information.

The term "information" can be either objective or subjective depending on the category. Examples of objective information are the results of a blood test or other medical records. Subjective information is usually collected by banks and insurance companies, for example, "Mr. X is a reliable borrower." This means that certain data does not need to be verified as accurate in order to be classified as personal information.

Personal data doesn't always take the form of names, addresses, and birthdates. It can also show up as images, audio clips, or other personal information if it fulfills the CCPA requirements.

Some key examples of information that CCPA considers to be personal data are:

  • Real Name
  • Alias
  • Postal Address
  • A Unique Personal Identifier
  • Online Identifier
  • Internet Protocol Address
  • Email Address
  • Account Name
  • Social Security Number
  • Driver's License Number
  • Passport Number

Personal data could also include inferences drawn from information, such as a consumer's preferences, characteristics, psychological trends, predispositions, behavior, attitudes, intelligence, abilities, and aptitudes. These forms of data also fall into the category of personal data under the CCPA.
Recent amendments to the CCPA introduced in Assembly bill 874 add the qualifier  "reasonably," as in “...Information that identifies, relates to, describes, is reasonably capable of being associated with, or could reasonably be linked, directly or indirectly, with a particular consumer or household…”. This clarification can help in medical studies where large data sets are anonymized.

Characteristics of Personal Data under the CCPA

According to the CCPA definition, four requirements must be fulfilled for information to be deemed personal.

  1. Information That Identifies:

This requisite refers to information that clearly identifies a consumer or a household. This information could include a real name, social security number, and even an image of the person; these all constitute personal data under the CCPA.

  1. Information That Relates:

This requirement refers to information that does not identify a person or household by its content but by its purpose. For example, it is debated that information gathered through cookies or alternate tracking methods can be classed as personal information that relates to a consumer and becomes a part of a consumer's personal data.

  1. Information That Describes:

Information such as drug prescriptions, dosage, drug identification number, phone number and other information can be used to describe a consumer falls under the category of personal data  under the CCPA.

  1. Information That Can Be Reasonably Linked:

In company databases and software, internal systems may embed tracking to keep data organized. Although this tracking system may not have the intent of tracking individuals, the CCPA classes any information taken from this system about an individual as personal data.

Who Must Comply With the CCPA?

Now that we know what personal data is, enterprises need to know to whom the CCPA applies. There are two requirements that, when met, obligate an organization to comply with CCPA regulations:

1. The company collects personal data from California residents.

2. The company (or their parent company or a subsidiary) exceeds at least one of the three thresholds:

  • It has an annual gross revenue of at least $25 million.
  • It obtains personal information from at least 50,000 California households, and/or devices per year.
  • It obtains at least 50% of its annual revenue from selling consumers' personal information.

When a company fulfills these requirements, it must comply with the CCPA or deal with the repercussions.

Although this may seem like a narrow scope that excludes a lot of companies, experts have estimated that a potential 500,000 companies must comply with CCPA across the globe. This is mainly because of the financial and demographic weight of the state of California and its businesses. Whether an online business or working in the global market, chances are that an organization has interactions with at least some California resident

How will CCPA Benefit Consumers and Businesses?

CCPA is designed to give consumers more power over their personal data. The rights embodied in CCPA give consumers more control over their data than ever before.

1. Consumers have the right to access their data that is held by companies, for free, up to twice every year.

2. Consumers have the right to opt-out from companies selling their data. They can also require companies to delete their information.

3. If there is a security breach in the company and a consumer's personal data is stolen, the CCPA fines the enterprise up to $750 per incident. With the amount of records stored by companies, these fines could translate to millions if not billions of dollars per data breach.

4. For children under 16, there is a mandatory opt-in for data collection. This requirement helps protect the privacy of minors.

Overall, the CCPA grants transparency to consumers from companies. From now on, companies must be upfront about the data that they possess, and they cannot sell that data without consumer consent.

With customers' ability to opt-out of data collection, data selling is more restricted and  forces companies to collect their own data on a first-party basis. This strategy change means that companies  have more accurate data and must know the exact origin of their data. This original data can be used to improve marketing activities and target the people that are a company's core audience.

How can Companies Comply with the CCPA?

The following are some fundamental building blocks of a state-of-the-art CCPA compliance solution:

Automatic Personal Data Discovery & People Data Graph Building

A fundamental building block of a CCPA compliance solution should be to automatically gather personal data across a myriad of systems like private apps and databases, IaaS and SaaS platforms. However, a comprehensive compliance solution shouldn’t stop there. Another critical function would be to automatically map this data to individuals, enabling a “people data graph” to ensure complete automation and compliance.

Secure Privacy Portal

A secure privacy portal with a cybersecurity focus is critical to collect and fulfill requests in a secure environment. Essentially, this portal would function as a secure interface between users who are requesting access to their data, and your employees who are fulfilling these data requests.

Robotic Automation of Data Subject Access Requests

With CCPA going into effect, we can expect a rise in DSARs being received by enterprises. Since fulfilling them requires a comprehensive search across a myriad of systems, manual fulfillment can be ruled out as a practical solution. Intelligent robotic automation can not only significantly cut down on DSAR fulfilment costs, it can also substantially reduce fulfillment times. A CCPA compliance solution built on state-of-the-art robotic automation protocols can be a powerful tool for any business operating in a post-CCPA world.

Consent Lifecycle

Automatically tracking the consent lifecycle across users will help a business understand when consent was given, the purpose of collection of user data, and update systems when consent is enabled or retracted by a user. Automation can accelerate this process more cost-effectively, with greater accuracy and at greater scale when compared to manual processes.

Breach Management

In the event of a system breach, a state-of-the-art compliance solution should follow certain protocols to inform regulatory authorities and people whose data has been impacted. This is where the people data graph can be used to inform only those customers whose data has been affected rather than having to inform all customers, saving an organization time, money and effort.

Vendor Assessment Ratings

Since PI data is often shared with vendors to ensure delivery of continually improving services to customers, a best-in-class CCPA compliance solution should also be able to conduct vendor assessments and rate them based on the type of PI data shared with them, while maintaining records of each vendor assessment for future use.

Self Assessments

There should be automatic, routine self assessments across all internal systems being employed by a business to ensure they are compliant with the relevant data privacy regulations. The reports from these self assessments also need to be curated as well as automatically sent out to all relevant stakeholders to ensure continuous compliance with all relevant regulations. This is something that a CCPA compliance solution based on an advanced PrivacyOps framework would be able to provide.

Compliance Records

Finally, a comprehensive CCPA compliance solution needs to have a centrally-accessible, easy-to-find and easy-to-acquire repository of all compliance records. This will ensure faster processing of compliance checks by regulatory authorities.

Key Takeaways
  • CCPA was created to protect consumer data by giving them more control, visibility, and transparency of their data. This added layer of security improves how AdTech and Data brokerage firms store and process data to minimize the occurrence of data breaches, identity theft, and the misuse of PII (Personally Identifiable Information).  
  • The CCPA defines personal data as "information that identifies, relates to, describes, is reasonably capable of being associated with, or could reasonably be linked, directly or indirectly, with a particular consumer or household."
  • These regulations give consumers power over their data and what companies do with it.
  • Companies that comply with the CCPA tend to build a stronger trust-relation with their consumers.
  • Companies must have a proper framework set to comply with the CCPA and avoid lawsuits and fines.
Next Steps

Visit PRIVACI.AI to learn about automating your operations and staying ahead of the pack by improving your policies and practices. Schedule a demo today and see how PrivacyOps automation and orchestration can help your business with CCPA compliance readiness.

January 2020 will usher in more than a New Year, it will also trigger the enactment of the California Consumer Privacy Act impacting about 500,000 organizations.  As Patience Haggin outlines in her recent Wall Street Journal article, the CCPA “applies to any for-profit business that does business in California and collects data on California residents, as long as its annual revenue tops $25 million, or it holds personal information on at least 50,000 consumers, or it generates at least 50% of its annual revenue from selling user data.” This means that, whether or not you physically operate in the state of California, if your website serves the state’s residents, the new law applies to you as well.

The article, titled “Businesses Across the Board Scramble to Comply With California Data-Privacy Law,” comes as news to many. For us at, it’s further justification for the solution we provide, and the recognition is validating. Haggin explains how the CCPA will enable California residents to request retailers, restaurants, airlines, banks and many other companies to provide them with any personal information they may have, including individual contact information, purchases and loyalty-program history. Consumers are further empowered with the ability to request that businesses delete their data entirely, or opt out of letting them profit from it.

Haggin cites Gap Inc. as an example and includes quotes from Dan Koslofsky, associate general counsel for privacy and data security at Gap, discussing the massive undertaking that preparing for the CCPA presents to companies that haven’t previously been regulated -- i.e. anything other than healthcare or financial services.

According to the International Association of Privacy Professionals, there are over 500,000 U.S. businesses across across industries that will be required to comply when the CCPA takes effect. From food and beverage companies to retailers to health insurers, banks and airlines, there’s no industry that will go untouched by the new privacy laws.

As the amount of data we create has grown, no system to organize it has grown with it. Haggin writes, “few companies keep all their customer data in one place, and now many are scrambling to build tools to match up individuals’ data across disparate systems, such as directories, purchase histories and customer-service request logs.”

The upcoming change for businesses is significant, but not unprecedented. For instance, companies like Gap have already gone through similar compliance issues in Europe with the EU’s General Data Protection Regulation. The GDPR, which took effect last year, is similar in its scope of customer-data requirements.

According to a PricewaterhouseCoopers survey this past year, only 52% of businesses expect to be CCPA-compliant by January 2020. To illustrate the kinds of concerns businesses big and small are having, the WSJ quotes Jeff Savage, president of Sacramento’s minor league baseball River Cats, “I’m concerned about people falsely accusing us of having information on them when indeed we don’t. How do I prove to Joe Smith that I don’t have his info?”

The WSJ explains that businesses receiving data requests will be required to comply within 45 days or risk fines and litigation, and that “the law threatens steep damages in the event of a data breach—as high as $7,500 per affected person.”

Could the CCPA be a sign of things to come? The WSJ likens the law to another standard that began in California -- regulated auto emissions -- and many believe that the requirements of the CCPA may soon become the national standard. In other words, this is only the beginning for PrivacyOps.

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